Calcium and Vitamin D

Calcium intake is necessary for fetal bone development during pregnancy and the maintenance of maternal well-being during breastfeeding. An adequate intake of calcium, along with vitamin D, is necessary for bone mineralization.

The best sources of calcium are milk and dairy products. The best source of vitamin D is the sun.


During pregnancy, iron is needed for the growth and development of the fetus and fetal blood formation. While the daily iron need of an adult woman is (total weight gain) 12.5kg on need during pregnancy is 27 mg. Failure to meet the increased need for iron during pregnancy leads to iron deficiency anemia.

Consumption of iron-rich foods such as meat, chicken, fish, eggs, molasses, legumes, dark green leafy vegetables, and dried fruits should be prioritized to avoid anemia. Foods rich in vitamin C (tomatoes, citrus fruits, green peppers, etc.) should be included in every meal to increase the use of plant-based iron in the body.

Because tea and coffee hinder iron absorption, they should not be consumed with meals.


It is an essential mineral for growth and development.

During pregnancy the need for iodine increases. Consuming iodized salt is the simplest way to ensure adequate iodine intake.

Folic Acid

Inadequate intake of folic acid during pregnancy results in congenital malformations in the infant. Furthermore, folic acid deficiency leads to anemia (megaloblastic anemia) and increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease in adults.

Foods rich in folic acid include legumes, nuts such as hazelnuts and walnuts, green vegetables such as spinach and Brussel sprouts, fruits, especially citrus fruits, unprocessed (whole grain) grain products, and potatoes.

Vitamin B12 intake is promoted by including meat, fish, eggs, and dairy products in the diets of expectant mothers. VitaminB12 and folic acid should be taken in combination, too.

Fluid Intake

Water, milk, yogurt drinks, freshly squeezed fruit juices, and homemade lemonade may be preferred to meet the need for fluid intake. Daily water consumption should be no less than 8-10 glasses of water.

Fluid intake is critical at every stage of pregnancy, from the beginning to the end. Adequate fluid intake helps the expectant mother to feel energetic during pregnancy. It helps avoid the development of untoward conditions such as skin dryness, constipation, and hemorrhoids.


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  2. Sağlık Bakanlığı. (2008). Eğitimciler için Eğitim Rehberi Beslenme Modülleri. Sağlık Bakanlığı Sağlık Eğitimi Çevre Sağlığı Genel Müdürlüğü, Temel Kaynak Dizisi, (43).
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