Gestational diabetes is defined as glucose intolerance that first appears during pregnancy. The main risk factors for GDM are maternal age over 40, being overweight, having GDM diagnosis in previous pregnancies, giving birth to a macrosomic baby, having diabetes in first-degree relatives, having polycystic ovarian syndrome and using certain drugs (corticosteroids, antipsychotic drugs). Proper nutrition and regular physical activity are very important for maintaining the health of both the mother and the baby.

Establish the carbohydrate balance.

The main carbohydrate sources such as bread, rice, pasta, bulgur, oats, potatoes, legumes and fruits are foods that directly affect blood sugar. Daily carbohydrate intake should be distributed in 3 main meals and 2-3 snacks in a balanced way. Since cortisol secretion reaches its highest levels in the morning hours, blood sugar values may be high after breakfast. Therefore, attention should be paid to the amount of carbohydrates taken during breakfast.

Choose healthy carbohydrates.

Inadequate carbohydrate consumption, such as excessive carbohydrate consumption, can also cause failure to control blood sugar. For this reason, instead of completely removing carbohydrate sources from the diet, it would be right to choose healthy carbohydrates and keep the amount of consumption under control. Fiber rich foods such as whole-grain bread, oats, bulgur, buckwheat, quinoa, legumes, fruits and vegetables should be preferred instead of white flour, rice, sugar-containing foods as a source of carbohydrates.

Support your baby’s development with healthy protein and fat sources.

Protein sources such as meat, chicken, fish, turkey, eggs, cheese, yogurt, kefir and healthy fats such as olive oil, avocado, oil seeds and nuts should be consumed to support the healthy development of the baby and also improve blood sugar control.

Get your vitamin D levels checked.

Some studies have found a relationship between vitamin D deficiency and the risk of developing GDM. If there is a vitamin D deficiency, supplementation under the supervision of a physician can improve blood sugar levels by increasing insulin sensitivity.

Don’t forget probiotics.

Consumption of probiotics can improve blood sugar levels by reducing insulin resistance and maintaining gut microbiota balance. For this reason, probiotic-rich foods such as yoghurt, kefir, sauerkraut, mozzarella, and cottage cheese should be consumed regularly.


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